【精益英文】簡單么?我們來談談5S!

Hey there, I'm Ron Pereira of Gemba Academy. And I'd like to welcome you to this first module of our 5S course.


各位好,我是Gemba學院的羅恩•佩雷拉,歡迎來到5S課程的第一個模塊。


Well, by the end of this module, you'll know what 5S is and why it's so important, no matter what type of industry you work in. And finally, you'll know where the original concepts of 5S started. And as a small hint, it doesn't seem to be Japan like so many think it to be.


在本單元的最后,各位將知道5S是什么,以及為什么5S很重要,無論從事的行業是什么。最后,各位將知道5S最初的概念,源自哪里。一個小的暗示,5S似乎不像很多人所認為的那樣是來源于日本。


Well, let's get started by first answering the question. What exactly is 5S? Well, formally defined, 5S is a method of creating a clean and orderly workplace that exposes waste and makes abnormalities immediately visible.


我們首先回答這個問題:5S到底是什么?好,按正式的定義,5S是一種創造潔凈有序的工作場所,暴露浪費,并使異常情況立即可見的方法,


As an aside, this particular image has an interesting story behind it. The man on his hands and knees polishing the floor just happens to be the president of this manufacturing company. You see, at this company, nearly all employees, including senior management, come to work 30 minutes early every day in order to clean and tidy things up.

這里,順便說一句,我們看到的這張圖片背后有一個有趣的故事。這個膝蓋著地,雙手擦地板的人正好是這家制造型公司的總裁。在這家公司里,幾乎所有的員工,包括高級管理人員,每天都要提前30分鐘來上班,以便清潔和整理東西。


Oh, and one other small fact, these 30 minutes are unpaid and completely voluntary. But as it turns out, 5S is so engrained into this company's culture that nearly all employees partake in this early morning routine. Now, with this said, while cleaning is an extremely important part of 5S, it must be said that 5S is far more than a housekeeping initiative like so many confuse it to be.

這里,還有一個小的實際情況,這30分鐘是無償的,完全是自愿的。不過,事實證明,5S深深地融進了該公司的文化之中,幾乎所有的員工都參與到了這一清晨的日常工作中。現在,有了這句話,雖然清潔是5S的一個極其重要的部分,不過,必須說5S不僅僅是一個內務活動,就像很多人混淆了的那樣。


You see as we learned earlier, one of the main purposes of 5S is to be able to identify abnormalities. In other words, if the place we work in is an unorganized mess, chances are we'll rarely be able to spot when something is not right.


正如在之前我們所了解的,5S的主要目的之一是:能識別出異常。換句話說,如果我們工作的地方一團糟,我們很可能就會很難發現有什么不對的。


But if we have things neat, clean, and tidy, we're far more likely to identify when something isn't right. Okay. Well, now that we have a better understanding of what 5S is, let's learn about its origins.


不過,如果東西是有序、干凈和整潔的,我們就會更容易辨別出什么地方不對。嗯,既然我們已經對5S有了更好的了解,讓我們來了解它的起源吧。


Well, when someone refers to 5S, they're generally referring to 5 Japanese words that start with S. But it would seem, contrary to what many people assume, the origins of 5S may not be Japanese after all. In fact, Henry Ford's CANDO Program which stands for cleaning up, arranging, neatness, discipline, and ongoing improvement seems to be the obvious precursor to what we call 5S today.


有人提到5S時,他們通常指的是5個以S開頭的日文單詞。但與許多人的假設恰恰相反,5S的起源可能根本不是日文。事實上,亨利福特的CANDO計劃,即清理、整理、整潔、自律和持續改進,似乎才是我們今天所說的5S的明顯的前身。


And that actually seems very logical since the Japanese studied Ford's methods shortly after the war ended. But to be sure, the 5S we're focused on in this course and in most Lean manufacturing situations is based on 5 Japanese words. They are: Seiri, which is commonly translated as sort. Seiton, which means to straighten. Serso, which means to sweep or shine. Seiketsu, which actually means to sanitize, but is most commonly referred to as standardize today. And finally, Shitsuke, which means self-discipline or sustain.


這看起來是合乎邏輯的,因為在戰后不久,日本人研究了福特的方法。不過,可以肯定的是,我們在本課程和大多數精益生產環境中所關注的5S是基于5個日文單詞,分別是:Seiri,通常翻譯成整理。Seiton,意思是整頓。Serso,意思是清掃。Seiketsu,實際上是指清潔,不過,現在最常見的是指的是標準化。最后,Shitsuke-修養,意思是自律或者維持。


Now, later in the module, we'll dive a bit deeper into each of these 5 steps, but before then, let's spend some time talking about why 5S is so important, no matter if you work in a machine shop or a hospital.


在本單元的后面,我們將深入討論這5個步驟中的各個步驟。不過,在此之前,我們花一些時間來討論為什么5S很重要,無論你是在機器車間還是在醫院工作。


5S重要的4大原因


01


Well, the first reason 5S is so important is its impact on safety. There can be no debating the fact= that a cluttered and chaotic work area is often an unsafe work area. Well, 5S at its core should always focus on creating and maintaining an organized and safe workplace.


5S如此重要的第一個原因是:對安全的影響。毫無疑問,雜亂無章的工作區域,往往是不安全的工作區域。5S的核心,應該始終關注創建和維護一個有條理及安全的工作場所方面。


02


The second reason 5S is so important is that it helps us identify and eliminate waste, or Muda. Now, most people are amazed at how much more productive they are once their work area is de-cluttered, cleaned, and organized. Again! These "people" I am referring to could be a machine shop operator, or an accountant who sits behind a desk all day, or even a nurse who works 12 long hours each night, and just wants things to be in their place when they need them.


5S很重要的第二個原因:其有助于我們去識別和消除浪費。現在,大多數的人都驚訝于一旦工作區域被清理、清潔和有條理起來,工作效率會如此高效。再強調下,這里,我所指的這些“人員”可能是某個機械車間的操作人員,或者一整天都坐在辦公室的會計,或者甚至是每天要上12個小時晚班的護士,只要需要的時候,東西能在相應的位置上。


03


The third reason 5S is so beneficial is the fact that it's low cost and very high impact. You don't need to spend a lot of money to improve 5S. In fact, you could very well make some money, if you sell items you no longer use or need. Next, done correctly, 5S gets everyone in the company involved. It doesn't matter if you wear a suit and tie or a hard hat, 5S knows no boundary. So it's the perfect opportunity to bring folks that wouldn't normally interact with one another together. To be sure, this type of collaboration makes companies much stronger.


5S是如此有益的第三個原因是:低成本和影響高。我們不需要花很多錢來改進5S。事實上,如果賣的東西已經不再使用或者不需要,你還可以賺一些錢。接下來,正確地完成,5S讓公司中的每個人都參與進來。無論穿西裝打領帶,還是戴安全帽,5S是不分界限的。因此,這是讓那些通常不會互相交流的人員聚在一起的絕佳機會。不過,可以肯定的是,這種合作會讓公司變得更加強大。


04


Another reason 5S is so important is the simple fact that adherence to standards is a key to Kaizen. And, since 5S is a standard in and of itself, it goes without saying, if you can't do 5S, you can't do Lean. In fact, 5S is a key building block for most of the lean tools and concepts used today, such as, one piece flow, total productive maintenance, and single minute exchange of dies.


5S很如此重要的另一個原因是:堅持標準,是改善的關鍵。事實上,不用多言,5S本身就是一個標準,如果不能做到5S,那么,我們就不能做到精益生產。事實上,5S是當今大多數精益工具和概念的關鍵的組成部分,如單件流、全員生產維護和快速換型。


As they say, without 5S, you can indeed forget the rest. Okay. Well, now that we have a better understanding of why 5S is so important, let's discuss each step of the process.


如果沒有5S,你真的可能會忘記其他的。好的,我們已經對5S很重要的原因有了更好的理解,接下來,我們來討論一下該過程的每一個步驟。


But before then, let me just say that in the coming modules of this course, we're going to explain exactly how to go about executing each of these steps in your workplace.


在討論之前,要說的是,在本課程接下來的模塊中,我們將詳細解釋如何在工作場所執行這些步驟。


5S的釋義


1


Well, the first step is sort. This step basically challenges us to get rid of the things we don't need or use. Now, this can be a very hard step for some people, since they like to keep everything they've ever come in contact with. But this type of holding attitude only leads to clutter and disorganization. So, if we don't need it, we need to get rid of it.


第一個步驟是:整理。這一步基本上是讓我們丟棄不需要或者不用的東西。這對一些人來說,是很困難的一步,因為他們喜歡保留自己曾經接觸過的所有的東西。不過,這種維持的態度只會導致雜亂無章。所以,如果不需要的,我們就要丟掉。


Well, to help facilitate this sort process, Lean practitioners often use red tags similar to the ones shown in this picture. Rest assured, we'll be covering everything you need to know about red tagging in a coming module, since while it's not a complicated concept, there are many traps that you need to know about.


為了幫助大家簡化這一過程,精益實踐者通常使用與圖中所示類似的紅色標簽。各位放心,我們將在接下來的模塊中涵蓋大家所需要了解的關于紅色標簽的所有信息,因為,雖然這不是一個復雜的概念,不過,各位需要去了解諸多的陷阱。


2


Well, the second step is straightened. So once we've cleared out all the items we don't need, we need to straighten up what's left. Well, the mantra of a place for everything, and everything in its place fits this step perfectly. Well, here's an example of a nicely straightened tool box. If a screwdriver were missing from the top of it, it would be obvious to the owner of the tool box giving them an opportunity to find it, or replace it before he or she actually needed it to repair or work on something.


第二個步驟是:整頓。一旦我們清理完所有不需要的東西,就需要整頓下剩下的東西。好吧,所有物品都有空間存放,所有物品都得到合適的存放,這完全符合該步驟。這是一個整頓的工具箱一個很不錯的例子。如果螺絲刀的頂部丟失,工具箱的主人就能很容易發現,或者在他或者她實際需要螺絲刀來修理或者工作之前換掉它。


3


The third step is sweep. This step is also often referred to as shine. This is probably the most misunderstood step of all since most assume this step simply means to grab a broom and clean up. And while good old-fashioned sweeping is definitely important, this step is far more than just cleaning. You see, the main principle behind this step is to "clean to inspect." In other words, if you find yourself sweeping up the same mess day after day, you should do your very best to eliminate the source of the dirt.


第三步是:清掃。這一步通常也被稱為擦亮。這可能是最容易被誤解的一步,因為大多數人認為這一步僅僅意味著拿起掃帚進行清理。雖然,傳統的清掃方式非常重要,但這一步不僅僅是清掃。該步驟之后的主要原則是“清理檢查”。換句話說,如果發現一天又一天地打掃著同一個雜亂的地方,各位應該盡最大努力去消除灰塵的來源。


Here's an example of sweeping in action. As it turns out in this example, the sources of the dirt and grime were attacked as part of a Total Productive Maintenance. Kaizen event further demonstrating how 5S and other Lean principles are tied at the hip.


下面是一個清掃的例子。在這個例子中,作為全面生產性維護的一部分,灰塵和污垢的來源被攻克。改善活動,進一步展示了5S和其他精益原則是如何貼合聯系在一起的。



4


Well, the fourth step is standardize. This step is focused on creating standards, so abnormalities are easily recognized. Things like checklists and audits are very helpful. Also, some companies even engage in corporate 5S competitions where the monthly winner gets to hold the local 5S trophy for the month, while the last place team gets the opportunity to partake in a brown bag lunch with the general manager of the facility as they explain their plan to improve.


第四步是:標準化。這一步的重點關注標準的創建,異常很容易被識別。像清單和審核之類,就非常有用。此外,一些公司甚至會開展公司層面的5S競賽,每個月的5S優勝者將獲得5S獎杯,而5S最后一名的團隊有機會與工廠總經理一起享用一頓午餐,解釋5S改進計劃。


Now, if you look closely at the picture of our president scrubbing the floor, you can see many examples of standardization in place. Notice the blue tape on the floor. This is used to ensure the tables are put back into the correct location. Also, look at the sign under the mirror. Since this particular plant is in Japan, it's customary to remove your street shoes. As such, they've made it pretty clear where your shoes are supposed to be placed.


現在,如果你仔細觀察總裁擦洗地板的照片,你可以看到許多標準化的例子。注意地板上的藍色膠帶,這些是用來確保將桌子放回正確位置的。另外,看看鏡子下面的標志。因為這家工廠在日本,所以,習慣上要把便鞋脫掉。因此,他們很清楚鞋子應該放在哪里。


Now, if you happen to be watching this video with a group, I'd like to welcome you to pause the video in order to discuss what you see in this picture. Do you think this level of standardization would work in your company? You might want to take some time and discuss this as a group.


如果你碰巧和一個小組一起看這段視頻,歡迎暫停這段視頻,討論一下你在這張圖片中看到了什么。你認為,這種標準化水平在你的公司會起作用嗎?你可能要想花些時間和大家一起來討論這個問題。


5


Finally, the last step of the process is self-discipline. Now, the key to this step is to apply positive tension. In other words, if your 5S improvements are to sustain, it must be made clear that this is how we intend to operate as a company. It's similar to a rope. If a rope is pulled tightly and someone comes along and tugs on it, we get an immediate response. However, if the rope is loose and we pull on it, we may not realize it as quickly. So, this really gets back to being able to identify abnormalities. With positive tension, we can identify issues immediately. With loose or no tension, we don't.


最后,5S過程的最后一步是:素養。這個步驟的關鍵是施加正向的緊張感。換言之,如果5S改進需要持續,必須清楚地表明,這是我們作為一家公司的經營方式。就像一根繩子。如果一根繩子被拉緊,有人過來拉它,我們會得到立即的反應。不過,如果繩子松了,我們去拉它,我們可能就不會很快意識到 。所以,這真的恢復了識別異常的能力。在正向的緊張感下,我們可以立即發現問題。如果松懈或者沒有緊張感,我們則都不會。


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